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2019/12/27     

一个广东当代舞蹈剧场中的「么哒现代感」Metamodernism in a Canton Dance-theatre

by Archy Will He, Self-translated
作者 魏何阿奇,自译

Metamodernism is a concept proposed by Dutch cultural theorists Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker in a paper published in 2010 [2] as a way to explore and contextualise aspects of contemporary cultures that can no longer be described using the vocabulary of postmodernism [3].

「么哒现代主义」 (metamodernism, 又译为“元现代主义” [1]) 是荷兰当代文化理论家蒂莫托伊斯·维穆伦(Timotheus Vermeulen)和罗宾·凡·登·埃克(Robin van den Akker)在一篇2010年的论文 [2]中提出的一个概念。维穆伦和埃克希望透过这个概念铸造新的语境来探讨当代文化中一些难以完全用「后现代主义」词汇来描述的现象 [3]

Metamodernism is essentially an oscillation between the grand, romantic narrative of modernism and the irony and detachment of the postmodern. An oscillation that is rhythmic but not necessarily regular. An oscillation in which we find the commingling of modern naïveté and idealism and postmodern melancholy and skepticism.

「么哒现代主义」的本质在于「摇摆」。这是一个荡摇于「现代主义」的浪漫叙事和「后现代主义」的玩世不恭的「摇摆」。一个含有旋律而未必有一定之规的「摇摆」。怀有着「现代主义」的纯碎和理想的同时也含蕴着「后现代主义」中惆怅的诗意感和对事物的置疑与思索。

Metamodernism does not aim to maintain some form of homeostasis during the oscillation and is thus not a middle ground between the modern and postmodern. Metamodernism is more about exploring the paradoxical double-bind that both is and isn’t. To put it in Vermeulen’s words, the metamodern epistemology and its ontology should be conceived of as a “both-neither” dynamic: they are each at once modern and postmodern and neither of them. Metamodernism is meta in the sense that it resembles the Platonic metaxis, “being simultaneously here, there, and nowhere.” [4]

「么哒现代主义」探讨的并不是「摇摆」中对平衡的保持,所以它并非是一个徘徊于「现代」和「后现代」之间的中间立场。「么哒现代主义」探讨的是矛盾与非矛盾的同时存在。用维穆伦的话来说,「么哒现代主义」的「本体性」和「识知性」取决于一种即「现代」又「后现代」的同时非「现代」和非「后现代」的动态,如同柏拉图的「么哒西」(metaxis)一般,“在那处和这处的同时也在无处” [4]。「么哒现代主义」的前缀 “么哒”(meta-) 也是来源于此。

Metamodernism as a system of thoughts is still under development. It was only in the past few years that the word “metamodernism” gradually found its way into western media and pop culture. Meanwhile in China, metamodernism remains a foreign concept not known to many. Nonetheless, metamodernism is gradually gaining interest among Chinese academics in the recent years. Just back in November this year the China Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA) organised a conference titled Re-thinking Modernity — Global Art History Conference where metamodernism was one of the main topics of discussion. And Vermeulen was among the speakers invited.

作为一个思想体系「么哒现代主义」至今仍处于发展阶段。「么哒现代」一词也是在过去几年才漫漫渗入西方媒体和流行文化中。目前「么哒现代主义」在国内仍然是一个陌生、鲜为人知的概念。然而近些年来「么哒现代主义」也逐渐受到中国学术界的关注。「么哒现代主义」是今年11月中央美术学院举办的 “反思现代性:全球艺术史国际论坛”(CAFA论坛)其中的一个主要议题,维穆伦也是这次论坛邀请的演讲嘉宾之一。

If theories like “the end of history” and “the end of art” suggest the waning of Hegel’s “positive” idealism, Vermeulen reckons that we can perhaps return to Kant’s somewhat “negative” idealism. That is to say we acknowledge the unrealistic nature embedded in the teleological approach to history but we nonetheless think and act as if there is some truth to it. In many ways arts today are expressed in manners that are both ironic and sincere, with emphasis on the intuitive appeal as well as diversity and heterogeneity.

“Re-thinking Modernity — Global Art History Conference”
by the Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA)

维穆伦认为,如果说“历史的终结”、“艺术的终结”等论述说明了黑格尔历史主义的乐观设想已经失效,那么我们还可以回到一种康德式的消极理想主义:我们知道历史的目的论假设是非现实的,但我们可以用一种虚拟语气去相信它。今天的艺术就在用一种既反讽又真诚的方式来表达,这种表达强调的是直观感染力,以及多元性和异质性。

CAFA ART INFO,中央美院艺讯网
CAFA论坛丨反思现代性:全球艺术史国际论坛

Without further ado, here I present to you “Metamodernism in a Canton Dance-theatre: A little commentary on a contemporary dance-theatre I recently saw at the Guangdong Times Museum in Guangzhou”.

以下我将谈谈最近在广东时代美术馆看的一个当代舞蹈剧场中的「么哒现代感」。

ErGao’s Kung Hei Fat Choy is a continuation in the series of works about nostalgia and this time the work focuses on the complicated and personal relationship ErGao has with his family and the concept of home.

Contemporary Dance-Theatre: Kung Hei Fat Choy
by Guangdong Times Museum

《恭喜发财》是近年来二高对于故土思念的延续,这一次二高把思绪聚合到了最私密和最复杂的“家”。

广东时代美术馆
当代剧场 | 恭喜发财 Kung Hei Fat Choy

By taking source materials from personal life, Kung Hei Fat Choy is a work that depicts the artist’s memories and sentiment about home.

The Multi Body Experience in Kung Hei Fat Choy
by NxDxCxx

《恭喜发财》运用大量的生活素材,展现了创作者有关“家”的回忆和感悟。

文| 龍飛鳳舞,NxDxCxx
《恭喜发财》中的多重身体体验

Kung Hei Fat Choy is a one-man dance-theatre presented in the form of environmental theatre [5] in which there are no clear spatial separation between the dancer and the viewers. Choreographed and performed by artist ErGao, Kung Hei Fat Choy is a self-reflexive piece on ErGao’s recollection of what the 90s was like as well as other things in the his personal life, real and fabricated. The piece is a mix of contemporary dance, storytelling, and multimedia in conjunction with broth making and broth tasting and other forms of audience participation.

《恭喜发财》是一场以环境戏剧[5]形式『观众与舞者没有空间分割』的独舞剧场,由艺术家二高编排和演出。这是一部具有「自我映涉」(self-reflexivity)[6]性质的作品,回忆着二高90年代的童年和近排一些身边的事,其中有真实的,也有虚构的。作品结合了当代舞、故事讲述、多媒体的运用,以及煲汤、请观众喝汤和其他互动性的元素。

Kung Hei Fat Choy is a composition of small, fragmented, and down-to-earth narratives put together in a way that (unlike in a typical postmodernist work) does not entirely negate the modernist grand narrative but more as an attempt of reconstruction in its absence.

《恭喜发财》组成于碎片化、接地气的小叙事,本质上并没有典型「后现代」作品般彻底瓦解了「现代主义」的「宏大叙事」,而是在「宏大叙事」的不存在下透过小叙事映射出一种「宏大叙事」的重建。

The narratives in Kung Hei Fat Choy oscillate between expectation and false expectation, the past and the future of the past, tradition and none-tradition, and the new of the olden days and the not-new of the present time. Despite the fact that throughout the piece there is no explicit mention of concepts like ambition or anything having to do with grand narratives, the main characters in the story have all acted and behaved as if they are each working towards something. The narrator who managed to become an artist, the narrator’s father who recently started a rabbit farm in Yangjiang, the mother who immigrated to Hong Kong, and the brother who is studying and working aboard in Seoul - everyone is working as if heading towards something. Towards the end of the piece, we the audience still couldn’t quite tell what exactly that something was. And yet we could all agree that they should keep on going, and never stop pursuing what it is that they are pursuing.

《恭喜发财》中的小叙事荡摇于「期待」与「期待的不成立」、「过去」与「过去的未来」、「传统」与「非传统」、「旧的新」与「新的旧」。虽然作品没有任何详述谈及到理想等抽象、带有「宏大叙事」色彩的概念,然而叙事中的人物————当上了艺术家的主人公、在阳江养殖兔子的爸爸、移居香港的妈妈、去了首尔留学工作的弟弟————好像都是为了什么在奋斗、在不断地朝一个方向走去。到作品最后作为观众的我们还是不能很明确地说这是为了什么,然而我们能一致认同,嗯,要走下去,走下去是对的。

This meta-sentiment forsakes the modernist commitment to grand narratives without betraying the modernist aspiration, and is in many ways metamodernistic akin to the overall sentiment throughout Kung Hei Fat Choy.

《恭喜发财》的构建手法舍弃了「现代」对「宏大叙事」的执着,但并没有违背「现代」对「宏大叙事」的纯碎。这是一个带有「么哒现代主义」的构建手法,而构建出来的作品总体也沉浸在一种「么哒现代主义」的色感之中。

When the audience was welcomed at the performance site in the museum, they were told they had arrived at Ergao’s home and were free to explore before he returned. It was under this pretence of home a double frame was created at the opening when ErGao arrived with a basket containing baby bok choy. By directly referencing the performance itself, ErGao’s opening brought into awareness that this was a performance. And instead of undermining the notion that this was a home gathering (in accordance to the play’s setting), the self-conscious awareness further reinforced the overall self-deceptive nature of the experience. It was through this double frame in a somewhat wilfully deceptive performatist manner à la Eshelman [6] that the metamodernistic sentiment was expressed in Kung Hei Fat Choy.

当观众来到《恭喜发财》在美术馆的演出场地时,观众并被告知『这是二高的家』,在二高买菜回来前可以自由参观。这是一个虚拟的「家」。二高拎着装有白菜的篮子进场后,利用开场白在这个虚拟的「家」创设了一个「双重画面」。透过「自我指涉」(self-reference),开场白将『这是一场表演』的意识带进了表演中。然而这个自我意识并没有离弃『这是二高的家』和『这是一场朋友团聚』的剧本设定,反而加以巩固了作品自身的虚拟性。这是一个埃舍曼「表演主义」(Performatism)[6]般有意为之的自我欺骗。作品总体的「么哒现代主义」色感就是建立在这个「双重画面」其中。

As compared to metamodern works in the West (such as those of LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner’s [7]) that are more postmodernistic in nature, metamodernism in Kung Hei Fat Choy is subtle if not relaxed. And it is in this gentle oscillation between the modern and postmodern that Kung Hei Fat Choy attempts to describe a sense of belonging and non-belonging in terms of space and time that oscillates between existence and none-existence per se. It is an attempt that intersects with a Cantonese sense of nostalgia, a positive attitude towards the dissolution of family in the twenty-first century and towards progress and the New Things. All this in conjunction with a feeling of being lost and inarticulate, and the acknowledgement and acceptance of it all.

对比西方带有强烈「后现代」色调的「么哒现代」作品(如“拉博夫,伦科&特纳”的作品 [7]),《恭喜发财》中的「么哒现代主义」更像是一抹淡淡的「么哒现代感」,轻轻地晃悠于「现代」和「后现代」之间,呈现出一种在时间和空间上隐约雀跃于「存在」和「不存在」之间的归宿感的描述、一种对广东传统文化的幽情、一种乐观。这是一种对二十一世纪「分裂的家」的乐观,也是一种对「发展」、对「新事物」的乐观。同时乐观的背后又是一种迷茫、一种难以言表、一种接受。

The usage of the phrase “Kung Hei Fat Choy” (which is the romanisation of the Cantonese expression “恭喜发财” that literally means “congratulations for achieving wealth”) as a Chinese New Year greeting was first popularised in Guangzhou in the 19th century [8]. It was only in the recent decades - after the Chinese economic reform - that we saw a popularisation of the phrase across mainland China. Similar to red envelopes and mandarines, “Kung Hei Fat Choy” reflects the wish for wealth in the upcoming year among people of Chinese heritage. ErGao’s Kung Hei Fat Choy is in many ways a deconstruction of that very phrase in the form of dance-theatre, a probe into debris of memories and none-memories for non-existent meanings and a metamodern romantic sensibility.

“恭喜发财”一词作为拜年祝福语起初流行于19世纪的广州[8],在改革开放后才逐渐普遍中国各地。和红包与金桔一样,“恭喜发财”反映着现代人们在新的一年对财富的盼望。二高的《恭喜发财》也是一场对“恭喜发财”一词以舞蹈剧场形式来进行的解构,在记忆与非记忆的瓦砾中翻寻着不存在的意义和带有「么哒现代」诗意的浪漫。



- THE END -




[1] 英文前綴「meta-」一般译为“元”,然而在近代越来越多人(其中有艺术家、作家、各领域学者等)一致认同「元」这个译法并没有很完善地表达出「meta-」的含义,它更多的是引起误解与造成误导的作用。详情可参见北京大学辜正坤教授的《外来术语翻译与中国学术问题》(1998).

我个人比较喜欢音译(即「么哒」),加上 metamodernism 自身带有新浪漫主义性质(见 [2] )的同时又含有一种虚拟又真诚的态度,故此,我选择「么哒现代主义」为它的中文表征。字眼上可以让当代人联系到网络用词「么么哒」,其中又是带有着另一种更俗气的“新浪漫”感,同时也是互联网虚拟但又真诚的卖萌方式。作为一个新用语,「么哒现代主义」后现代式地拉近了高雅文化(文化理论学)与大众文化(网络流行语)之间的距离,恰好也自身反映出了 metamodernism 概念的后现代根源。

[2] 详情见 Notes on metamodernism (Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, Vol 2, 2010) by Timotheus Vermeulen [蒂莫托伊斯·维穆伦] and Robin van den Akker [罗宾·凡·登·埃克], 英语不强的读者可以参见山东大学陈后亮博士的译文《元现代主义札记》。

[3] 详情见 The Passing of Postmodernism: A Spectroanalysis of the Contemporary (Albany: SUNY Press, 2010) by Josh Toth [乔什·托特]

[4] 详情见 Equivalences of Experience and Symbolization in History (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989) by Eric Voegelin [埃里克·沃格林]

[5] 详情见 6 Axioms for Environmental Theatre [《环境戏剧》] (1968) by Richard Schechner [理查·谢克纳的]

[6] 详情见 oxfordreference.com

[7] 详情见 Performatism, or the End of Postmodernism (2008) by Raoul Eshelman [罗尔·埃舍尔曼]

[8] 详情见 en.wikipedia.org

[9] 详情见 The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days [《洋人在广州》] (1825-1844) by William C. Hunter [威廉亨德]

Photos ©️ Liu Qingyu, Chun Li

照片 ©️ 刘卿羽,春丽

A new work titled Kung Hei Fat Choy N+ in the same series has been commissioned by the Chinese Dancers’ Association under the 2019 PeiQing Program, and will premiere in Beijing in Octoboer 2020.

系列新作《恭喜发财N+》由中国舞协2019“培青计划”委约,将于2020年10月于北京首演。





About ErGao 关于二高

ErGao is an independent choreographer and dancer from Yangjiang, Guangdong, whose works utilise multimedia such as film, media installation, etc. After graduating from Guangdong Cantonese Opera School in 2001, ErGao studied contemporary dance in the joint college of Sun Yat-sen University and Guang Dong Dance College in 2002, and later received full scholarship and studied at the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts where he graduated in 2006.

广东阳江人,以舞蹈、影像及装置等作为多元媒介的舞者/编导。2001年于广东粤剧学校毕业后,2002年就读于中山大学与广东舞蹈学校联合办学的现代舞大专班,随后,2006年以全额奖学金毕业于香港演艺学院现代舞专业。

ErGao founded ErGao Dance Production Group (EDPG) in 2007 in Guangzhou, Guangdong, with a focus on dance-theatre, dance film, community art and dance education. His productions continuously see the body as the primary medium and the site of artistic investigation and use diverse strategies to explore Chinese social and cultural identities, sex, gender and other topics.

2007年在广州创立二高表演EDPG,任艺术总监,专注于舞蹈剧场、舞蹈电影、社区艺术以及舞蹈教育。其作品一直坚持中以身体做为审视焦点和主要介质,以多元的创作方式阐释中国社会和文化中身份与性/别等诸多问题。

Between 2007 and 2012, ErGao was invited to participate in projects in collaboration with international dance companies and dance festivals, including Rubatu Tanz Company, Angie Hiesl and Roland Kaiser (Germany), Living Dance Studio (China), Limitrof Company (France), Emio Greco | PC (Holland). From 2012 onwards, ErGao accepted commissions from various arts organizations and art festivals, including Ibsen International (Norway), Fabbrica Europa (Italy), Hong Kong Arts Festival, Hong Kong Jumping Frames Dance Film Festival (Hong Kong), Guangdong Modern Dance Festival, Guangdong Modern Dance Company, Guangdong Times Museum (Guangzhou), Shanghai Ming Contemporary Art Museum (Shanghai), DPAC Dance Company (Malaysia) and other organizations. He was selected as resident artist of Pro Helvetia - Swiss Arts Council in 2019. In 2015, German’s media “Deutsche Welle” named Ergao “one of the bright stars of contemporary dance in China.”

2007年至2012年受邀参与多个国际舞蹈团和艺术节的项目,包括德国Rubatu Tanz Company、荷兰Emio Greco | PC、法国Limitrof Company、中国草场地青年编导计划、德国Angie Hiesl and Roland Kaiser等。2012年之后,先后接受了多个艺术机构和艺术节的委约创作,包括挪威易卜生国际、香港跳格国际舞蹈影像节、意大利Fabbrica Europa、广东现代舞周、广东现代舞蹈团、马来西亚DPAC舞团、澳门诗篇舞集、香港动艺、广东时代美术馆和上海明当代美术馆等,其舞蹈影像作品相继展览于广东美术馆及深圳华美术馆。近年来,积极推动舞蹈教育,先后于中国美术学院、广州美术学院、法国Musee de la Danse舞蹈中心、中山大学、浙江大学、马来西亚DPAC舞团、北京雷动天下等机构开展工作坊、讲座等。近期获选瑞士文化基金2019驻地艺术家,2015年《德国之声》称其为“中国一颗冉冉升起的编舞之星”。

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